Founded by the Berbers in the 2nd millennium BCE, the city of Tunis has been controlled by Phoenicians, Romans, Arab Muslims, the Ottomans, the Spanish, the French and the Germans, finally achieving independence as the capital of Tunisia in 1956. This history has made Tunis a mélange of ancient and modern cultures. The medina is a network of narrow alleyways, mosques, mausoleums, palaces and a souq where shoppers haggle over the price of everything from filigreed gold to inexpensive souvenirs.
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, comprehending the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran.
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